Emerging Technologies

Coding the Law of Armed Conflict: First Steps

Coding the Law of Armed Conflict: First Steps

[Editor’s note: The following post highlights a subject addressed in the Lieber Studies volume The Future Law of Armed Conflict, which was published 27 May 2022. For a general introduction to this volume, see Professor Matt Waxman’s introductory post.]   Killer...

The Law of Armed Conflict in 2040

The Law of Armed Conflict in 2040

In the summer of 2020, the Lieber Institute team and I convened a workshop at West Point titled “LOAC 2040.” We invited a group of law of armed conflict (LOAC) scholars and practitioners from around the world, and with a range of perspectives, to consider how that...

Augmented Reality Battlefield

Augmented Reality Battlefield

States are prioritizing measures to enhance soldiers’ situational awareness during military operations, including the development of augmented reality capabilities. Augmented reality, as distinguished from virtual reality, superimposes digital content on a live view...

Hunter 2-S Swarming Attack Drones: Legal & Ethical Dimensions

Hunter 2-S Swarming Attack Drones: Legal & Ethical Dimensions

Halcon, a defense company based in the United Arab Emirates, unveiled its aerial fleet of swarming drones—Hunter 2-S—at the Unmanned System Exhibition and Conference in Abu Dhabi on February 21, 2022. The small-sized Hunter 2-S modular launching system is the latest...

The Law and Character of War in 2035

The Law and Character of War in 2035

In fall of 2020, the Lieber Institute for Law and Warfare at West Point joined a U.S. Army Futures Command (AFC) multi-year study on the changing character of warfare. The study has convened three times annually since. Its purpose is to predict and identify...

Deepfake Technology in the Age of Information Warfare

Deepfake Technology in the Age of Information Warfare

Prior to its invasion of Ukraine, there were speculations that Russia was planning to produce a graphic fake video showing a Ukrainian attack as a pretext for an invasion. Although this “false flag” operation did not play a major role in the end, deepfake technology...

Reentering the Loop

Reentering the Loop

The warfighting advantages of using lethal autonomous systems, and the potential costs of not using them, seem to guarantee their role in future armed conflict. This post argues that optimizing their effectiveness involves not only improving their independent...

When Corporations Take Offensive Measures Against States

When Corporations Take Offensive Measures Against States

Cyberattacks are increasingly inundating the private sector, and most States are unable or unwilling to provide adequate protection against these attacks. To mitigate this challenge, numerous corporations acknowledge that they have engaged in some form of active cyber...